the3million has regularly published research in collaboration with academics, researchers and partner organisations.

Research is an integral part of almost all aspects of work at the3million – position papers, legal analyses, evidence submissions, letters to UK and EU authorities & more.

The Publications Library contains a full list of all our written work – from one-page briefing papers on specific issues (such as the need for physical proof of settled and pre-settled status) to lengthier research reports (such as the Settled Status survey report).

Since 2017, the3million has been involved in several key research projects with partners inside and outside academia.

London Voices - the journey to full participation



the3million's Young Europeans Network was selected, following a competitive tender process, to be the delivery partner for the London Voices project. This research project explores civic and democratic participation from the perspective of London's underrepresented communities. 


The full project report will be disseminated in November. You can read some preliminary findings in our literature review and briefing paper on Voter ID and electoral reform. For more information, there is a presentation of the overview of the project.  

EU citizens' identity, belonging and representation post-Brexit​

the3million was the key community dissemination partner for this research project exploring how EU citizens feel in the post-Brexit UK. The research, conducted by Prof Tanja Bueltmann and Dr Alexandra Bulat at the University of Strathclyde, explores questions such as how EU citizens construct their identity, how Brexit impacted their belonging in the UK and to what extent this group feels represented in UK local and national politics. This research is based on a survey of over 2,400 EU citizens and 49 follow-up interviews.

The full report is available to download here. You can also watch a video presentation of some key findings here. 

Vulnerability in the EU Settlement Scheme: Looking Back, Going Forward​

With fears that the Home Office’s EU Settlement Scheme (EUSS) will create a ‘new Windrush’ scandal, Law Centres Network has released new research to shed light on those more likely to be left behind by the Scheme. The new report, 'Vulnerability in the EU Settlement Scheme: Looking Back, Going Forward' analyses original, previously unpublished data and raises concerns about "the melting pot of potential legal problems" that EU citizens will face now that the Scheme has officially closed for applications.

The report was co-authored by Dr Kuba Jablonowski, the3million researcher, and was published in July 2021. You can read the full report here.

The effects of COVID-19 on migrant frontline workers and people of colour​

COVID-19 disproportionately impacted migrants and people of colour working in the UK, especially on the frontline.

This research, based on a survey with 170 migrant workers and people of colour, highlights how the respondents felt they were putting their health at risk during the COVID-19 pandemic and feared job losses. A substantial minority experienced racist abuse at work.

This research has been conducted by Migrants' Rights Network (MRN), in collaboration with Kanlungan Filipino Consortium, the3million and Migrants at Work and was published in December 2020. You can read the full report here.

Mind the gap: an analysis of EU citizens' political participation and representation in the UK


The rights of EU citizens to vote and stand in the UK 2021 local elections have been confirmed. Yet there is limited knowledge on EU citizens’ political participation and representation patterns in the UK.


In August and September 2020, we worked on a project funded by the Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust (JRRT) to investigate the political participation of EU citizens at the local authority level in England. 

Our report, co-authored by Alexandra Bulat and Carl Gergs, shows how EU citizens’ participation varies across regions and identifies areas where the participation gap is likely to be most pronounced. The research also provides some insight into the political representation of EU citizens at the local level. It gives recommendations for researchers, political rights campaigners and political stakeholders on how to build a more inclusive UK democracy. You can download the accompanying data toolkit for the report here.

Employers poll reveals: EU citizens at risk, business not ready for changes to UK immigration law (2020)

The Government’s long-term ambition is to go digital in public administration, including immigration control. For employers and workers, this includes replacing physical document right-to-work checks with digital, online verification. At the same time, employers will have to familiarise themselves with a new immigration regime they have had no experience of - the points-based system.

the3million commissioned an online poll of professionals with authority over hiring decisions, you can find our analysis here.

Rights and representation:

Exploring young Europeans’ views on settlement, citizenship and political participation (2020)

This community research funded by the Greater London Authority (GLA) Citizens’ Led Engagement Programme explored the experiences of 16-30-year-old European Londoners applying to the EU Settlement Scheme and their views on citizenship and political participation. The project, led by Alexandra Bulat, involved 13 young European peer researchers who did work placements with the3million and conducted focus groups with 11 nationalities in the summer of 2019.
The research findings were launched on 20 May 2020 through an online webinar. The report (the summary is also available as a briefing paper) was discussed by two panels, involving a variety of speakers from the youth and migration sector (My Life My Say, British Future, Polish Migrants Organise for Change (POMOC), We Belong, Migration Observatory), the Greater London Authority (GLA) and the3million Young Europeans peer researchers Ioana Cenolli and Veronica Hera and Young Europeans filmmaker Ioana Diac.
You can watch the video recording of the event on the3million’s Facebook page here.

Experiences and impact of the EU Settlement Scheme (2019)


This survey-based research was conducted by Prof Tanja Bueltmann at Northumbria University, in collaboration with the3million. The Settled Status survey involved over 3,000 participants. It is the most detailed research on experiences of applying to the EU Settlement Scheme to date. It documented the experiences of Europeans who had a less straightforward time securing their status and showed how even those who found it relatively easy to apply tend to feel unsettled with their settled status.

Read the report from the3million and Northumbria University here:

Research on ringfencing citizens’ rights in the Brexit negotiations (2019)

One of the3million’s key asks in the Brexit negotiations, alongside British in Europe, was to ringfence citizens’ rights. Prof Stijn Smismans from Cardiff University has been involved in the3million, particularly researching the prospects of ringfencing EU citizens’ rights in the UK-EU negotiations. Prof Smismans’ proposals for ringfencing citizens’ rights have been published as research papers. These proposals were the foundations of the Costa Amendment, a success for the3million’s UK parliamentary lobbying activities in 2019.


Read Prof Smismans’ research here: and

EU families & Eurochildren in Brexiting Britain (2018)

The Eurochildren research project, led by the University of Birmingham, examined the experiences of EU children and their families after the 2016 referendum, looking at family decisions to settle in the UK or move to another country. The project mapped the population of UK and EU-born children of EU nationals and assessed the impact of the EU referendum on their sense of belonging. the3million was one of the partner organisations in this project and assisted with participant recruitment and research dissemination.

Read the Eurochildren publications here:

Submission to the MAC Enquiry into EEA Migration (2017)

In July 2017, the UK government commissioned the Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) to investigate what migration could look like. the3million were asked to submit their findings on the issue of freedom of movement. Despite being given little time to perform this task, the3million was able to produce a report which was shared with the MAC which received the information with great interest. The final MAC report was published in September 2018.

Read the submission here:

How do European citizens experience the process of applying for the permanent residence certificate (2017)

Long before the EU Settlement Scheme was launched in 2019, the3million collaborated with the University of the West of England to research the experiences of EU citizens who applied for the EEA Permanent Residence card. The qualitative research, led by Anne-Laure Donskoy on behalf of the3million, analysed how EU citizens felt about applying for permanent residency. It identified and detailed on the barriers EU citizens faced, particularly the requirement for Comprehensive Sickness Insurance, which led to many rejections.

Read the report from the3million and University of the West of England here:


Requirements for a Permanent Residence card for EEA nationals in EU member states (2017)

The Commons Select Committee on Exiting the EU requested the3million to provide comparison data on applying for Permanent Residence across the EU member states. The information was compiled by Kuba Jablonowski and Anne-Laure Donskoy, to provide an overview and quick comparison tool of requirements. 


View the results here: Permanent Residence requirements